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Proboscideans by SameerPrehistorica Proboscideans by SameerPrehistorica
A tribute to one of the most awesome and famous group of mammals and my top favorite mammalian group, the mighty proboscideans !!


Eritherium(Extinct),Phosphatherium(Extinct),Moeritherium(Extinct),Numidotherium(Extinct),Barytherium(Extinct),Gomphotherium Steinheimense(Extinct),Deinotherium Thraceiensis(Extinct),Amebelodon Fricki(Extinct),Palaeomastodon(Extinct),Phiomia(Extinct),Deinotherium Giganteum (Extinct),Platybelodon(Extinct),Deinotherium Bozasi(Extinct),Gomphotherium Productum
(Extinct),Chilgatherium(Extinct),Deinotherium Proavum(Extinct),Prodeinotherium Bavaricum(Extinct),Gomphotherium Angustidens(Extinct),Deinotherium Indicum(Extinct),Rhynchotherium(Extinct),Zygolophodon Borsoni(Extinct),American Mastodon(Extinct),Gnathabelodon(Extinct),Anancus Arvernensis(Extinct),Stegotetrabelodon Syrticus(Extinct),Notiomastodon Platensis(Extinct),Stegodon Trigonocephalus(Extinct),Stegodon Zdanskyi(Extinct),Cuvieronius Hyodon(Extinct),Palaeoloxodon Antiquus
(Extinct),Elephas Hysudricus(Extinct),Palaeoloxodon Falconeri(Extinct),Elephas Iolensis(Extinct),Elephas Ekorensis(Extinct),Elephas Hysudrindicus(Extinct),Palaeoloxodon mnaidriensis(Extinct),Stegomastodon Mirificus(Extinct),Palaeoloxodon Namadicus(Extinct),Stegodon Ganesha(Extinct),Primelephas(Extinct),Tilos dwarf elephant(Extinct),Palaeoloxodon Recki(Extinct),South African Mammoth(Extinct),Mammuthus Africanavus(Extinct),Mammuthus Rumanus(Extinct),Sardinian Dwarf Mammoth(Extinct),Southern Mammoth(Extinct),Steppe Mammoth(Extinct),Pygmy Mammoth(Extinct),Cretan dwarf Mammoth(Extinct),Columbian
Mammoth(Extinct),Woolly Mammoth(Extinct),Loxodonta Atlantica(Extinct),Loxodonta Exoptata(Extinct),Carthaginian Elephant(Extinct),Syrian Elephant(Extinct),Borneo Pygmy Elephant,Srilankan Elephant,African Forest Elephant and African Bush Elephant.

In the past,there were about some 350 species of proboscideans. In this image, there are only 60 species and yet it seems like over population. There are 2 of them which are very tiny so that they won't be much visible.

Nearly half of the proboscideans in this image are based on the beautiful skeletal reconstruction by Asier Larramendi.

Larramendi, A. 201X. Shoulder height, body mass and shape of proboscideans. Acta. Palaeontologica Polonica XX (X): xxx–xxx. dx.doi.org/10.4202/app.00136.2…



(The Order Proboscidea has one of the most comprehensive fossil records of any species. The evolutionary history of proboscideans has always been of great interest to Vertebrate Palaeontologists.

There were tiny mammals lived alongside dinosaurs for many million years. Mammals diversified after the extinction of dinosaurs and among those mammals was a tiny proboscidean. It evolved into several different species. This group was very successful that they were so diverse. Over time, they not only became bigger but became the most dominant of all the mammals. They inhabited every continent except Australia and Antarctica. Some proboscideans are bigger and heavier than the largest carnivorous dinosaurs.

Elephantidae is a family of large, herbivorous mammals collectively called elephants and mammoths. These are terrestrial large mammals with a snout modified into a trunk and teeth modified into tusks. Most genera and species in the family are extinct. Only two genera, Loxodonta (African elephants) and Elephas (Asiatic elephants) are the only surviving members of the Order Proboscidea.

The African elephants are elephants of the genus Loxodonta. There are two subspecies – the larger savannah elephant (Loxodonta africana africana) and the smaller forest elephant (Loxodonta africana cyclotis). The Asian or Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus) is the only living species of the genus Elephas. Four subspecies are recognised. The Sri Lankan subspecies (Elephas maximus maximus), the mainland subspecies (Elephas maximus indicus), the Sumatran subspecies (Elephas maximus sumatranus) and the Borneo subspecies (Elephas maximus borneensis).

African elephants are highly intelligent, and they have a very large and highly convoluted neocortex, a trait they share with humans, apes and some dolphin species. They are among the world's most intelligent species. With a mass of just over 5 kg (11 lb), elephant brains are larger than those of any other land animal, and although the largest whales have body masses twenty-fold those of a typical elephant, whale brains are barely twice the mass of an elephant's brain. The elephant's brain is similar to that of humans in terms of structure and complexity. For example, the elephant's cortex has as many neurons as that of a human brain,suggesting convergent evolution.

Elephants use some vocalizations that are beyond the hearing range of humans, to communicate across large distance. Elephants exhibit a wide variety of behaviors, including those associated with grief, learning, allomothering, mimicry, art, play, a sense of humor, altruism, use of tools, compassion, cooperation, self-awareness, memory and possibly language. The intelligence of some proboscideans rivals that of primates.

The largest land mammal alive today, the African elephant which weighs about 6 tonnes, the record holder individual weighed about 10.4 tonnes. The order Proboscidea also has the largest ever land mammal, Palaeoloxodon namadicus which weighed upto 22 tonnes.)


Don't let our largest charismatic land animal to go extinct. Stop the poaching !!!

(  The question is, are we happy to suppose that our grandchildren may never be able to see an elephant except in a picture book ?  ~ David Attenborough )

Add a Comment:
 
:iconrizkiusmaulanae:
RizkiusMaulanae Featured By Owner Oct 25, 2016  Student Traditional Artist
Afaik, the borneo elephant is not a native to the Borneo island. My dad said that the elephants were actually a gift from a kingdom from thailand for Malaysia (in this case they put the elephants in North Borneo). However, some elephants managed to escape and bred in the wilderness of the Borneo island.
Reply
:iconhippidion:
Hippidion Featured By Owner Jun 8, 2016
Have a look at Baz Edmeades' wonderful website "Megafauna : First Victims of Human Expansion" at www.megafauna.com
He makes the point that early humans in Africa, as far back as the Pliocene, 3-4 million years ago, were already impacting upon Africa's large animals, particularly giant tortoises
and Proboscideans.  We would have somewhere between 20 and 30 pachyderm species today in the absence of human hunting, if you include Asia's Stegodons, the
numerous pygmy species of elephants and mammoths on Mediterranean islands, the recently extinct pachyderms of North And South America, the woolly mammoths and straight-tusked
elephants of Europe, and the huge Palaeoloxodon namadicus of South East Asia, which only went extinct about 25, 000 years ago.
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:iconsameerprehistorica:
SameerPrehistorica Featured By Owner Jun 24, 2016  Hobbyist
Interesting..
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:iconparaceratherium:
Paraceratherium Featured By Owner May 12, 2016
Before the close of the Pleistocene, there were at least three families of Proboscideans. We still had the mastodons, the last representatives of the Gomphotheres in South America as well as the elephants including the mammoths. There were probably nearly a dozen species and subspecies. Dr Valerius Geist theorized that these large mammals felt no need to run from most predators because of their size. When human hunters who specialized in killing megafauna came on board, most Proboscideans didn't adapt by running away. Three species of elephants survived., because they learned to flee the moment they sensed humans by ear or smell. Even in Africa during the past two centuries there were a few hunter-gatherer peoples who were skilled at killing elephants without firearms. This shows the sophistication of hunter-gatherers at hunting large intelligent mammals.
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:iconkamarodu21:
kamarodu21 Featured By Owner Jul 5, 2016
But there is 4 species still alive shown in this picture, i always tought there was only the Asian elephant, the African bush elephant and the African forest elephant.
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:iconsameerprehistorica:
SameerPrehistorica Featured By Owner Oct 25, 2016  Hobbyist
If we use the word 'species', there are only 2 species of elephants alive today. The African forest elephant is a subspecies of the African bush elephant and the Borneo pygmy elephant is one of the 4 subspecies of the Asian elephant.

We can add subspecies in an image but should mention it's correct name. For example, in a bear comparison image, some people may mention one of the bears as brown bear but if there is 2 brown bears present in that image,then the 2 subspecies of brown bears name should be mentioned properly, like Kodiak bear and grizzly bear rather than 2 brown bears.

Here in this image,i have used the name 'Srilankan elephant' instead of Asian elephant because there are 2 Asian elephant subspecies present in the image. The Srilankan elephant being the largest subspecies and the Borneo pygmy elephant being the smallest subspecies.
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:iconkamarodu21:
kamarodu21 Featured By Owner Oct 28, 2016
oh ok, it's clear !
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:iconsameerprehistorica:
SameerPrehistorica Featured By Owner May 13, 2016  Hobbyist
Ofcourse some of them don't need to run from predators because of their size, awesome strength and intelligence combined. The felines fanboys will not agree it and who cares. That is not surprising, they use spear kinds of stuffs and making traps on the ground where some elephants will fall down.The worst species ever are humans.
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:iconparaceratherium:
Paraceratherium Featured By Owner May 19, 2016
Would you like to feature your submission in our gallery?
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:iconsameerprehistorica:
SameerPrehistorica Featured By Owner May 22, 2016  Hobbyist
Which is your group? Actually this image needs one last update.
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:iconsameerprehistorica:
SameerPrehistorica Featured By Owner Oct 25, 2016  Hobbyist
Finally now i updated it. In your group,when i selected contribute option, the featured folder is not seen. 4 folders are visible, and one of that folder seems like suitable to upload this image. That folder is 'Beautiful Nature'. I didn't contributed it yet because of the folder confusion.
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:iconparaceratherium:
I made changes so any Deviant user can submit to our galleries with a vote for approval.
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:iconsameerprehistorica:
SameerPrehistorica Featured By Owner Jun 2, 2016  Hobbyist
I will update this image and will upload in that group.
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:iconryunysus-the-great:
ryunysus-the-great Featured By Owner Apr 9, 2016  Hobbyist General Artist
Proboscidea is my most favorite group in Mammalia.. And this is beautiful.. Lovely lovely work :D
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:iconsameerprehistorica:
SameerPrehistorica Featured By Owner Apr 16, 2016  Hobbyist
Thanks. You have added 'Ceratopsidea' to mammals collection, they are dinosaurs.
Reply
:iconryunysus-the-great:
ryunysus-the-great Featured By Owner Apr 17, 2016  Hobbyist General Artist
Oh will correct that, thanks!
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:iconlexiekay2010:
lexiekay2010 Featured By Owner Feb 20, 2016
This is amazing!!!  I love that it is beautiful art and also educational.  I had no idea how many species there were!  Thank you for this!!
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:iconsameerprehistorica:
SameerPrehistorica Featured By Owner Feb 22, 2016  Hobbyist
Thanks.This image will get one last update with overall 50 members.
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:iconlexiekay2010:
lexiekay2010 Featured By Owner Feb 22, 2016
I can't wait to see it! :)  There were so many species I did not know about.  It makes me want to research them now! :)
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:iconsameerprehistorica:
SameerPrehistorica Featured By Owner Feb 23, 2016  Hobbyist
Well,it is said that there are about 350 species of them.Now your jaw may drop.The Proboscideans are very diverse.Mostly i always make the largest animals,so the largest Proboscideans are indeed already present in this image.
Reply
:iconsupervegeta720:
supervegeta720 Featured By Owner Feb 13, 2016  Hobbyist Digital Artist
 Asian Elephant and Borneo Pygmy Elephant are the same species
Reply
:iconsameerprehistorica:
SameerPrehistorica Featured By Owner Feb 14, 2016  Hobbyist
Sub species.. Both of them have some differences.
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:iconjagroar:
Jagroar Featured By Owner Jan 23, 2016   Traditional Artist
Now the most reliable morphological data being reflected, this becomes the best proboscidean ensemble picture for the size and morphological comparisons. One of my favorite works of the whole DA, by far. Thumbs up to this awesome tribute to the kings of land mammals.
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:iconsameerprehistorica:
SameerPrehistorica Featured By Owner Jan 23, 2016  Hobbyist
Thank you my dear Jag Proboscidean.:D (Big Grin) Nod Actually when i updated this image,i didn't let the watchers know about this because this image is not fully updated and you can note that this one would look slightly blurred compared to other images.Currently, overall there are 40 Proboscideans in this image including the 3 tiny early Proboscideans which are not much visible.I want to end this image with 50 Proboscideans and i have made some 5 new ones,5 more to go. Then there are few Proboscideans in this image which needs to be updated and finally will edit the description. The last update i make for this image will look better.
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:iconjagroar:
Jagroar Featured By Owner Jan 24, 2016   Traditional Artist
You're most welcome Sameer, and 50 proboscidens sound simply astounding! I'm very much looking foreword to the final completion of this image=) Once again, incredible work.
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:iconsameerprehistorica:
SameerPrehistorica Featured By Owner Oct 25, 2016  Hobbyist
Thanks. Before leaving from this site,i wanted to update them and now i did. But not with 50 but ended up with 60.
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:iconjagroar:
Jagroar Featured By Owner Oct 30, 2016   Traditional Artist
Again, one of the best visual tributes to the family Proboscidea I've ever seen. I can look at these many different pachyderms all day.
What do you mean leaving? You're one of my fav DA paleo artists and really sad to hear you saying that.
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:iconsameerprehistorica:
SameerPrehistorica Featured By Owner Nov 1, 2016  Hobbyist
Thank you very much. Haha,no wonder that you can look at those different pachyderms all day. :D
Well, my time is over. Anyway, i will make a post about it this month because i won't be active in DA after this month.
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:iconjagroar:
Jagroar Featured By Owner Nov 1, 2016   Traditional Artist
Haha this is probably the only paleoart work that I've kept continue checking during the span of good several years. Very special.

Well, I know you have your reasons not to be so active in here anymore... but you know we, DA paleoart comminity is like a family(at least so I personally feel) and we'll welcome you back whenever you decide to return. :)
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:iconmikebrownsound:
mikebrownsound Featured By Owner Dec 11, 2015
100 % agreed stop the poaching and delivery to the asian market! 
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:iconsameerprehistorica:
SameerPrehistorica Featured By Owner Jan 23, 2016  Hobbyist
Nod 
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:iconforbiddenparadise64:
ForbiddenParadise64 Featured By Owner Nov 18, 2015
www.deviantart.com/art/The-col… Have you seen this: it's an update about P.Namadicus and how the 22 tonne estimate for the largest specimen is actually [i]conservative[i], perhaps even minimalist, as the smaller specimen has been found to be larger than originally thought. What could this mean?
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:iconsameerprehistorica:
SameerPrehistorica Featured By Owner Jan 23, 2016  Hobbyist
How can i know what that means ? The only thing i can think about is that there was a 22 tonne Elephant which could be the largest of all the land mammals.
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:iconforbiddenparadise64:
ForbiddenParadise64 Featured By Owner Jan 24, 2016
What it means is the animal wasn't 5m tall at the shoulder but likely 5.16m (just over 17 feet) at the shoulder, which means it was likely over 5.6m tall overall due to the head. 22 tonnes is still likely, though 23 or even 24 tonnes could be possible due to how adult elephants are usually more robust than juveniles. Sorry for confusion. Plus there is a third specimen which may also be a giant, so more will hopefully need discovery this year.
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:iconwjones215:
wjones215 Featured By Owner Nov 1, 2015
To be honest with you I have never heard of a Borneo Pygmy elephant until now.
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:iconsameerprehistorica:
SameerPrehistorica Featured By Owner Nov 1, 2015  Hobbyist
I never knew about that before either except the 3 living species.
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:iconpootisman90:
Pootisman90 Featured By Owner Sep 19, 2015
I realized something. Just because most people think that the dinosaurs were the largest land animals ever doesn´t mean that they REALLY "were". Iguanodon was as big as a white rhino but less agressive, apparently the largest Smilodon could reach weights of nearly 600 kilograms, Deinotherium was could reach 15 tons... Anymore examples?
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:iconsameerprehistorica:
SameerPrehistorica Featured By Owner Sep 22, 2015  Hobbyist
It's not about "just because most people think that the dinosaurs were the largest land animals ever". Dinosaurs are the largest of all the land animals and we have proof for it,so you don't have to think that some people claiming some fake evidence.
                        The largest Smilodon which is Smilodon Populator weighed upto 400 kg and there is no felid known at 600 or 500 kg.Those weights are for some bears.May be Deinotherium could have reached 14 tonnes and the biggest mammal,Paleoloxodon Namadicus at 22 tonnes. There is no land mammal even at 30 tonnes and the biggest known Dinosaur is at 110 tonnes and even though it is not ending there.Some large Dinosaur track ways are known which could be from some very large Dinosaurs.Dinosaurs are a mystery,still nobody knows how heavy is the largest dinosaur. There is a lot of difference.Sauropods are the largest of the Dinosaurs and they own all the land animals.
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:iconpootisman90:
Pootisman90 Featured By Owner Sep 22, 2015
Sauropods, but no hadrosaur, ceratopsian,stegosaurid or theropod will ever match the Palaeoloxodon or the Paraceratherium in sheer mass. Right?
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:iconsameerprehistorica:
SameerPrehistorica Featured By Owner Sep 22, 2015  Hobbyist
One Ceratopsian called as Ceratopsipes or Triceratops Maximus which is known from footprints indicating a very large animal probably weighing as much as a Paraceratherium but we don't have to take it seriously because we can't defend an animal which is known from footprints. In that case there are several giant Sauropod tracks and we can't defend those Sauropods saying it is bigger than Blue Whale.It's always best if we have fossils of giant animals.

Here is the link to the scientific article for Ceratopsipes.

digitallibrary.amnh.org/handle…

Except the Sauropods,one or two Hadrosaurs might rival or come close to the size of Palaeoloxodon Namadicus or Paraceratherium Transouralicum.The biggest Hadrosaur known is at 16 tonnes and i don't know whether if that is it's average weight or maximum weight.No other Dinosaur species would approach the weight of the biggest Proboscideans and Indricotheres.
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:iconpootisman90:
Pootisman90 Featured By Owner Sep 22, 2015
Yes!
Hey, can I ask you a weird question?
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:iconpootisman90:
Pootisman90 Featured By Owner Sep 7, 2015
Given the fact that Palaleoloxodon could reach weights of nearly 30 tons, proboscideans could give sauropods a run for their money, right?
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:iconsameerprehistorica:
SameerPrehistorica Featured By Owner Sep 8, 2015  Hobbyist
Not 30, it's 22 tonnes and there is no way any other land animal could give Sauropods a run for their money. The largest Sauropods known at 100 tonnes and sure there might be few of them getting to 125 or even 150 tonnes +. Time will tell..
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:iconpootisman90:
Pootisman90 Featured By Owner Sep 8, 2015
A run for the money of the hadrosaurs then?
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:iconsameerprehistorica:
SameerPrehistorica Featured By Owner Sep 8, 2015  Hobbyist
Definitely.. The biggest Proboscideans have the size and power to beat most Dinosaurs except giant Sauropods.
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:iconpootisman90:
Pootisman90 Featured By Owner Sep 8, 2015
And what carnovores (mammals) could have matched (or at least approached) the theropoda family?
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:iconsameerprehistorica:
SameerPrehistorica Featured By Owner Sep 9, 2015  Hobbyist
You mean, which mammalian carnivores could have approached the size of Theropods ?
      There is no mammalian carnivore on land which comes close to large theropods but in the sea, it's a different story.
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:iconpootisman90:
Pootisman90 Featured By Owner Sep 9, 2015
And medium-small theropods? Ndong tigers could reach half a ton, Andrewsarchus a little more than a ton, Arctotherium could be nearly 12 feet tall and two tons, daeodon were scavengers... maybe?
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:iconsameerprehistorica:
SameerPrehistorica Featured By Owner Sep 10, 2015  Hobbyist
Yes,some mammalian carnivores can come close to the size of small Theropods. Medium-sized theropods are bigger. Some large Felids come slightly close to the size of small Theropods.I am talking about small theropods in the range of 1 tonne and there is no felid being that heavy. The bigger mammalian carnivores which are well known mostly are the bears like Arctotherium,Arctodus,Agriotherium and then there are some other bigger carnivores like Andrewsarchus,Megistotherium..these animals equal the weights of small Theropods. Medium sized theropods are 3-4 tonnes and the weight of the biggest mammalian carnivore known is only 1.5 tonnes which is indeed a bear,Arctotherium.
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